Selected Accepted Paper Submissions
Due to the lack of appropriate economic development in Iran, some of the major industries, such as automotive, still have not gone through product oriented period, and there is a huge gap with strategic studies in the post-industrial period. This study examines the different dimensions of energy strategies in Iran by using SWOT technique and analyzes the changes resulting from the application of various macro policies in the form of a decision-making matrix. The dominant energy strategy in Iran is the maximum possible utilization of Fossil Energy Resources, which has always caused widespread environmental pollution, the frequent occurrence of Dutch disease, the development of consumerism and import in the Iranian economy as an epidemic. Governmental spending management and the development of non-oil exports strategies have made positive changes in the energy sector, but the need to adopt a resistance strategy has had adverse effects, especially in the area of sustainable development. This study called for the formulation and implementation of a strategic energy plan for Iran in the context of sustainable development issues, and, if implemented, in the short term, while weakening self-dependence and increasing the import of energy, especially gasoline, would require increased research and development costs, revising In the process of domestic electric energy production, large investments in the field of new energy are in line with the trend of industrial development and the global strategic plan for energy.
Arsenic contamination in soil has become one of the major threat to environment. The primary source of arsenic in soil is through groundwater and finally to food chain system, causing deleterious health issues. The bioavailable fraction of arsenic in soil is also considered as the most significant fraction while assessing the potential risk arising from it. Therefore arsenic interactions with various physicochemical properties of soil would provide a better understanding of its availability in the soil. This abstracts has detailed study of different fractions of available arsenic and its importants in soil. Hence the study was conducted to assess the variations in different soil characteristics (enzymatic and physicochemical) with different fractions of arsenic in contaminated area. Soil samples were collected from 10 different sites of West Bengal, India. Five extractants, such as sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), ammonium oxalate ((NH4)2C2O4), ammonium oxalate ((NH4)2C2O4) + ascorbic acid (C6H8O6), di-hydrogen ammonium phosphate (NH4H2PO4), HNO3-HF, were used to analyze the different bioavailable fractions of arsenic. The results showed that the relative abundance of As fractions were in the order of water-soluble < specifically adsorbed< amorphous Fe As < crystalline Fe As < residual. It has been found that the availability of arsenic in the paddy soils got influenced by pH, EC, available sulphur, organic matter and available phosphorus. It has increased with increasing available sulphur, EC and organic matter contents and decreased with increasing available P, Fe, Mn. According to soil guideline usually a single value for large areas which can produce over- or underestimation or not clear of efforts in soil remediation actions. This study provides new insight into arsenic bioavailability, mobility and toxicity in rice and would lead to a better understanding of As contamination for developing the effective and soil-specific remediation strategies.
Urbanism is building structure and spaces, which fits the human scale with different facilities and needs for the social and the residence. The Kingdom of Bahrain, as many other countries suffering from land scarcity, caused by the overpopulation. The overpopulation is rapidly increasing which consequently leads to physical expansion of towns’ caused by the urban growth. Government tend to do land reclamation upon the surrounding Gulf water to have enough land for the urban development. However, vertical buildings are one of the solution in accommodating large amount of inhabitants, saving and building on much smaller lands vertically. Consequently, it will save the marine life and preventing the reclamation of land by constructing sustainable and affordable vertical buildings that accommodate large numbers of families rather than horizontal ones. The concept of sustainability applied to different professions and majors, such as sustainable architecture. Due to the overpopulation, designers have think about a sustainable urban solution. This directed them to alternative solution to cities, which are vertical and sustainable. Therefore, the idea of this research is focus upon building communities vertically following the sustainable vision issues. No doubt, that constructing such buildings will consider many issues for example environmental in term of climate and noise matters, social needs in term of privacy and safety and engineering subjects in term of services, structure system, that face the hazards of earthquakes and fire protection. The research will explain and talk about the roots of the problems; such as suburbs, in addition to, urban spaces have tended to treat the horizontal extension of cities, with the ignorance and overlooking to it as vertical extensions. Moreover, the principles, pillars, technicalities and needs in building a vertical sustainable building with the human needs within a vertical environment will be within the context of the report.