Selected Accepted Paper Submissions
The early stages of oxidation of stainless steel is studied using first principles density functional theory calculations. A Monte Carlo approach was used to efficiently identify the most probable low energy structures in the high-dimensional configuration space. The composition, structure, and oxidation states of the atoms in the oxide layers were analyzed by atomic density profiles, nearest neighbor distribution, and Bader charge analysis. The results suggest that the passivation of steel by chromium is largely due to its high preference for the Cr3+ oxidation state and a structure with 6 oxygen neighbors while the iron at the surface is more susceptible to oxidation and oxygen penetration because of its relative lack of preference between a range of nearest neighbors and between the Fe2+ and Fe3+ oxidation states.
The ability to control enantioselectivity of enzymes through protein engineering is an expensive tool, thus other less tedious approaches are of interest. Here, we report the effect of concentration of 2-propanol co-substrate, which is also used as a co-solvent, on the enantioselectivity of a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus (TeSADH) mutant. More specifically, we used W110A TeSADH-catalyzed asymmetric reductions of 1-phenyl-2-propanol and 1-phenyl-2-butanol to study the effect of changing the reaction medium on the enantioselectivity. The ability to control the stereoselectivity of TeSADH by changing the concentration of 2-propanol and other co-solvents is an important tool that can be used in deracemization of alcohols to obtain their enantiopure forms in high efficiencies.
People have always wanted to travel faster and for longer distances. Also in today's world, the mobility plays a huge role, hence the increasing tendency of traveling by airplanes. However, huge quantities of fossil fuels are consumed for flight and transport of passengers and goods, which results in increasing pollution of the natural environment as a result of exploitation and extraction of these resources. Thus, the idea was born to create an aircraft that does not cause any harmful emissions, driven by photovoltaic panels and the force coming from the sun's rays. However, this creates many challenges related to the conditions in which such a machine can work, as the power of radiation varies depending on the latitude and local weather conditions. Therefore, a simulation was carried out in the TRNSYS software to determine the limiting conditions and energy management of an airplane powered by solar energy.
A dynamic flux balance analysis of bioethanol production potential of Zymomonas mobilis from glucose/ xylose mixtures is presented. Z. mobilis is glucose-selective microorganism and two types of community-culture schemes are investigated for effective utilization of both glucose and xylose: co-culture and sequential co-culture. For glucose/xylose mixture, the co-culture fermentation of 3:1 glucose/xylose mixture using substrate-selective microorganisms (wild-type Z. mobilis and xylose-selective recombinant Escherichia coli strain ZSC113) predicts an ethanol yield of 0.43 g/g and this can be further improved to 0.49 g/g by deletion of suitable genes from ZSC113. The sequential co-culture is considered for substrates having separated glucose and xylose fractions using two wild-type microorganisms, Z. mobilis and Scheffersomyces stipitis and this predicts an ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g from substrate having glucose and xylose in 3:1 ratio.
Authors of paper: - Damian KADROWSKI - Malgorzata STEPIEN - Piotr BASZCZYNSKI - Michal KULAK - Michal LIPIAN - Filip GRAPOW - Katarzyna TELEGA - Dominika RASZEWSKA - Jeremiasz CZARNECKI - Rafal SKALSKI - Karol ZAWADZKI - Malgorzata PROCIOW - Pawel ROGOWSKI - Marcin MILLER
Authors of paper: - Malgorzata STEPIEN - Damian KADROWSKI - Piotr BASZCZYNSKI - Michal KULAK - Michal LIPIAN - Filip GRAPOW - Katarzyna TELEGA - Dominika RASZEWSKA - Jeremiasz CZARNECKI - Rafal SKALSKI - Karol ZAWADZKI - Malgorzata PROCIOW - Pawel ROGOWSKI - Marcin MILLER
Author of paper: - Piotr BASZCZYNSKI - Malgorzata STEPIEN - Damian KADROWSKI - Michal KULAK - Michal LIPIAN - Filip GRAPOW - Katarzyna TELEGA - Dominika RASZEWSKA - Jeremiasz CZARNECKI - Rafal SKALSKI - Karol ZAWADZKI - Malgorzata PROCIOW - Pawel ROGOWSKI - Marcin MILLER
AGH Solar Plane is a innovative project created by students from AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. Our goal is to create a remotely controlled plane, powered by energy generated by solar panels. The plane is an outstanding example of combination of modern technology advancements with renewable energy sources. The poster is an overview of AGH Solar Plane project.
In this work, the absorbent composing of Bayer red mud and water was prepared and applied to remove SO2 from flue gas. Effects of the ratio of liquid to solid (L/S), the absorption temperature, the inlet SO2 concentration, the O2 concentration, SO42- and other different components of Bayer red mud on desulfurization were studied. The mechanism of flue gas desulfurization, the disposal of spent red mud and the application prospect were also established. The results indicated that L/S was the prominent factor, followed by the inlet SO2 concentration and the temperature was the least among them. The optimum condition was as follows: L/S, the temperature and the SO2 concentration were 20:1, 25 °C and 1000 mg/m3 respectively under the gas flow of 1.5 L/min. The desulfurization efficiency was not significantly influenced when O2 concentration was above 7%. The accumulation of SO42- inhibited the desulfurization efficiency. The alkali absorption and metal ions liquid catalytic oxidation were involved in the process, which accounted for 98.61%.
Energy engineers, managers and decision makers need analytical tools to assist them with financial savings in the field of lighting. A specific applied context is an energy lighting system with the ability to recommend energy saving measures for buildings. This paper demonstrates and examines a range of recent developments in the energy modeling field, with a specific focus on lighting and daylighting. A combination and integration of a few existing energy models were utilize in order to develop a new energy lighting tool for financial savings and daylighting analysis. This analytic energy lighting tool demonstrates the vast potential that such a system might have in the energy field. The tool was tested and successfully demonstrated, generating some practical recommendations for financial savings and daylighting utilization for any building type, and medical centers in specific. It is hoped that this study would help engineers and practitioners in the development of energy systems and tools.
In response to local and global energy and health challenges, this paper presents the design and cost benefit of Net-Zero Energy Housing (NZEH) in Qatar. Thus this work determines whether the benefits outweigh the cost of the implementation of NZEH. There is an uncertainty over the reliability of the presented cost benefit data in other countries as cost benefits differ from one place to another. A lack of empirical evidence has increased the uncertainty; particularly a lack of evidence on the costs and benefits of net zero and low emission housing option to private households. These costs includes the cost of renewable energy technologies. This paper aims to bridge the research gap by applying cost benefit methods. Thermal insulation, solar power generation and solar water heating systems were modelled and lifecycle costing are applied to explore the costs and benefits across 25 year for net zero emission new house scenarios in Qatar The average typical residential villa energy use establishes a baseline for determining energy and cost savings. A cost-benefit analysis is first performed at the subsystem level, house level and then at the country level and the results were in fovor of the implementation of NZEH. Solar photovoltaic and solar water heating subsystems are designed in order to meet the hot water and electricity requirements of a typical villa. Thermal insulation was found non-beneficial due to the low electricity tariff in Qatar. Annual savings of 299 Qatari Riyals (QAR) per villa and 21 million QAR at the country level could be achieved if NZE housing is implemented. This is in addition to the numerous benefits of the utilization of a clean and sustainable energy.
Crude oil production system and maximizing hydrocarbon liquid recovery both are very essential to achieve good separation between gas and liquid. The aim of this study is to present an accurate methodology for optimizing separator pressures in the crude oil production unit. The new proposed methodology determines the optimum pressures of separators in different stages of separation and consequently optimizes the operating conditions. This paper presents a new model to estimate Optimum separator pressure for crude oil reservoirs as a function of routinely measured reservoir composition and reservoir temperature. The new model was proposed based on field and laboratory analysis data of 34 oil reservoirs representing different oil reservoirs and wide range of oil properties and reservoir temperatures. Statistical error analysis was used to determine the accuracy of the model. The evaluation shows that the correlation coefficient and an average relative error are of 97 % and 0.29 % respectively. In addition, results of the proposed model were compared with Soave Redlich Kwong equation of state (SRK-EOS) and Peng Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) and ensured its success for capturing the physical trend of oil reservoirs, and consequently is considered a very reliable one for petroleum industry.
The bubble point pressure is crucial for understanding how petroleum behaves within the reservoir and indicates the probable drive mechanisms. In the absence of the experimentally measured bubble point pressure, it is necessary for the engineer to make an estimate of this crude oil property from the readily available measured producing parameters. Asphaltene content is one of important parameter in the crude oil reservoir composition and it affects the ability of oil reservoir to keep in stable single phase, wherefore there is a direct relation between asphaltene content and bubble point pressure. This paper presents a new model to predict the bubble point pressure using a new parameter asphaltene content percentage and other parameters such as reservoir temperature, Gas oil ratio, API gravity and wellstream molecular Weight. A new model calculates the bubble point with correlation coefficient of 95.7 %.
Magnetite-rich particles were separated from the waste of hot-rolling steel industry. The separation was done on 500Gauss magnetic intensity. The separated particles of 75-300µm were used for the treatment of arsenic contaminated water. Both batch tests and column operation were used to study the effectiveness of magnetite-rich particles for adsorptive removal of As(V) from contaminated water. Four columns were operated with different particle size and EBCT. The influent pH was maintained at 6.5. Over 95% arsenic was removed during initial three weeks of column operation. The columns were completely regenerated with 0.1M NaOH after more than 7-week operation.
In New Zealand, clopyralid (3,6 dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) is one of the most widely used pesticides to control broadleaf weeds. There is very little research reporting the biological treatment of clopyralid; thus, the purpose of this research is to examine the potential biological degradation of industrial strength clopyralid wastewaters under aerobic conditions. Batch reactors were run for 24 h with initial clopyralid concentrations from 50 to 300 mg/L. It was observed that the biomass successfully treated the clopyralid up to the 250 mg/L concentration mark with 99 % removal at 100 mg/L. At the highest initial concentration of 300 mg/L, no further degradation was observed. In parallel with clopyralid degradation, COD removal was also observed; however results indicated that increasing concentrations of clopyralid created a potentially toxic effect on the biomass, with bacterial lysis most probably contributing to soluble microbial products which affected the effluent residual COD. Consequently, the COD removal efficiency decreased with increasing clopyralid concentration.
Due to simple construction and low costs of operation, straw-fired batch boilers are interesting heat sources dedicated to use in farms, residential houses and other industrial facilities. Solutions that are available include both air heaters with thermal oil jacket and typical water boilers. Temperature of thermal oil, achieving up to 200 Celsius degrees, makes possible to use straw-fired devices as a source of heat supplying micro scale cogeneration and trigeneration systems. First part of this paper shows experimental analysis of a micro combined heat-power system based on modified Rankin Cycle operation. 100 kWth straw-fired boiler with oil jacket was used as a heat source. Heated thermal oil from the boiler was transferred to the evaporator, superheater and oil/water heat exchanger in case of emergency. Steam which was generated was used to power a 20 hp engine. Cooling water which was heated in condenser was pumped to water tank which was connected with two air coolers. Controlling of the process was realized using a dedicated automation system based on the PLC controller. Second part of the study was intended to developing and modelling experimental installation in TRNSYS software. The dynamic operation conditions in terms of temperature and power were analysed for main components of the installation (steam engine, evaporator, condenser, boiler). Modifications in the system construction improve its performance were also proposed. Results of the experimental tests allows to identify main aspects of the considered system – temperature, steam pressure and power levels in all circuits and operating parameters of the steam engine. Simulations performed in TRNSYS allowed to find the nominal operation scenario for the tested system and shown high potential of the further improvements in the system construction.
Coal mining involves different activities to produce coal. In the process of production of coal, environment is badly affected. Here, the aim of study was to understand the effect of mine characteristics on cradle-to-gate Life Cycle environmental impacts of coal mining in Lajkura opencast(surface) mine of Ib Valley Coalfields of Odisha, India. The life cycle environmental impacts of water use, land use, energy use, abiotic resource depletion, and climatic change impacts were assessed using the general principles of the ISO 14040-49 series Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) standards, modifying them whenever and wherever necessary. The functional unit was defined as “one tonne of coal processed coal at the mine gate. The relative mass-energy-economic value method, with some modification, was used to scope the product system. Data were collected from mine in person, from environmental impact statements, coal mining permit applications, government reports, published literatures and relevant websites. Life cycle impact assessment(LCIA) included here classification and characterization but no normalization, grouping, or weighting, to avoid ambiguity. In this work, mid-point characterization models were preferred over damage-oriented (end-point) characterization models because of their high levels of uncertainties. The LCIA also includes sensitivity analysis. LCA is a perfect and prominent tool for comparison of various systems based on the impacts. So, more mines needed to be included in the study and thereby compared further based on impacts. More impact categories could be considered for study to address more resource inputs and emissions to air, water and ground. Impact categories which are used for study in LCA studies for coal mining product usage should be included as possible in the study to reduce LCI data gap for the products.
Abstract — Nowadays usage of the renewable energy, especially the solar energy is more and more popular. Not only to the energetic purposes but also to provide the power source in transportation. Airplanes powered by solar energy via photovoltaic panels are a relatively new segment for aerospace industry, but they quickly gained significant interest. For further development of this technology computional fluid dynamic (CFD) might be used. This technique allows to precisely predict and confirm airplane flight characteristics. Moreover, it makes the whole process high-performing and cost-effective. The aim of airplanes simulations is to maximize lift to drag coefficient (L/D). The efficient aerodynamic performance also might be provided by suitable selection of the airfoil. This study shows simulations carried out in ANSYS Fluent for 2D model of AG35 airfoil and 3D model of airplane. The lift and drag coefficients and forces were calculated. Results from FLUENT are presented in terms of velocity and pressure contours.
In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, about 40% of primary energy is consumed for cogeneration based power and desalination plants. In the past, many studies were focused on renewable energies based desalination processes to accommodate 5 fold increase in demand by 2050 but they were not commercialized due to intermittent nature of renewable energy such as solar and wind. We proposed highly efficient energy storage material, Magnesium oxide (MgO), system integrated with innovative hybrid desalination cycle (MEDAD) for future sustainable desalination water supplies. The condensation of Mg(OH)2 dehydration vapor during day operation with concentrated solar energy and exothermic hydration of MgO at night can produce 24 hour thermal energy for desalination cycle without any interruption. It was showed that, Mg(OH)2 dehydration vapor condensation produce 120C and MgO hydration exothermic reaction produce 140C heat during day and night operation respectively correspond to energy storage of 81kJ/mol and 41kJ/mol. In addition, the hybrid MEDAD cycle can boost water production to more than 2 fold as compared to conventional desalination processes at same operating temperature due to excellent thermodynamic synergy. We believe that the proposed energy storage driven desalination cycle is the most sustainable solution for future water supplies.
Copper mining and extraction involves the exploration, mining, extraction, processing, beneficiation, and refining of copper ores from the core of the mining deposit to produce valuable non-ferrous copper metal. The toxic substances or wastes from the beneficiation of mining industries easily get mixed with nearby soil or water to destroy the environment. This paper analyzes the life cycle environmental impacts of copper beneficiation process. The analysis is done here using SimaPro software version 8.5 using ILCD and CED methods. This paper compares among the seven regions or countries which are dominant in copper mining and processing: global, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and Caribbean, North America, Europe, Indonesia, and Sweden. The analysis results indicate that copper beneficiation has the highest impact on human health (non-cancer effects), human health (non-cancer effects), and freshwater eutrophication. The results also indicate that copper processing in the Asia and the Pacific region has the most detrimental process towards sustainability
Due to the lack of appropriate economic development in Iran, some of the major industries, such as automotive, still have not gone through product oriented period, and there is a huge gap with strategic studies in the post-industrial period. This study examines the different dimensions of energy strategies in Iran by using SWOT technique and analyzes the changes resulting from the application of various macro policies in the form of a decision-making matrix. The dominant energy strategy in Iran is the maximum possible utilization of Fossil Energy Resources, which has always caused widespread environmental pollution, the frequent occurrence of Dutch disease, the development of consumerism and import in the Iranian economy as an epidemic. Governmental spending management and the development of non-oil exports strategies have made positive changes in the energy sector, but the need to adopt a resistance strategy has had adverse effects, especially in the area of sustainable development. This study called for the formulation and implementation of a strategic energy plan for Iran in the context of sustainable development issues, and, if implemented, in the short term, while weakening self-dependence and increasing the import of energy, especially gasoline, would require increased research and development costs, revising In the process of domestic electric energy production, large investments in the field of new energy are in line with the trend of industrial development and the global strategic plan for energy.
Arsenic contamination in soil has become one of the major threat to environment. The primary source of arsenic in soil is through groundwater and finally to food chain system, causing deleterious health issues. The bioavailable fraction of arsenic in soil is also considered as the most significant fraction while assessing the potential risk arising from it. Therefore arsenic interactions with various physicochemical properties of soil would provide a better understanding of its availability in the soil. This abstracts has detailed study of different fractions of available arsenic and its importants in soil. Hence the study was conducted to assess the variations in different soil characteristics (enzymatic and physicochemical) with different fractions of arsenic in contaminated area. Soil samples were collected from 10 different sites of West Bengal, India. Five extractants, such as sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), ammonium oxalate ((NH4)2C2O4), ammonium oxalate ((NH4)2C2O4) + ascorbic acid (C6H8O6), di-hydrogen ammonium phosphate (NH4H2PO4), HNO3-HF, were used to analyze the different bioavailable fractions of arsenic. The results showed that the relative abundance of As fractions were in the order of water-soluble < specifically adsorbed< amorphous Fe As < crystalline Fe As < residual. It has been found that the availability of arsenic in the paddy soils got influenced by pH, EC, available sulphur, organic matter and available phosphorus. It has increased with increasing available sulphur, EC and organic matter contents and decreased with increasing available P, Fe, Mn. According to soil guideline usually a single value for large areas which can produce over- or underestimation or not clear of efforts in soil remediation actions. This study provides new insight into arsenic bioavailability, mobility and toxicity in rice and would lead to a better understanding of As contamination for developing the effective and soil-specific remediation strategies.
Urbanism is building structure and spaces, which fits the human scale with different facilities and needs for the social and the residence. The Kingdom of Bahrain, as many other countries suffering from land scarcity, caused by the overpopulation. The overpopulation is rapidly increasing which consequently leads to physical expansion of towns’ caused by the urban growth. Government tend to do land reclamation upon the surrounding Gulf water to have enough land for the urban development. However, vertical buildings are one of the solution in accommodating large amount of inhabitants, saving and building on much smaller lands vertically. Consequently, it will save the marine life and preventing the reclamation of land by constructing sustainable and affordable vertical buildings that accommodate large numbers of families rather than horizontal ones. The concept of sustainability applied to different professions and majors, such as sustainable architecture. Due to the overpopulation, designers have think about a sustainable urban solution. This directed them to alternative solution to cities, which are vertical and sustainable. Therefore, the idea of this research is focus upon building communities vertically following the sustainable vision issues. No doubt, that constructing such buildings will consider many issues for example environmental in term of climate and noise matters, social needs in term of privacy and safety and engineering subjects in term of services, structure system, that face the hazards of earthquakes and fire protection. The research will explain and talk about the roots of the problems; such as suburbs, in addition to, urban spaces have tended to treat the horizontal extension of cities, with the ignorance and overlooking to it as vertical extensions. Moreover, the principles, pillars, technicalities and needs in building a vertical sustainable building with the human needs within a vertical environment will be within the context of the report.